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Cannabis - the magical grass

Cannabis - the magical grass
抗炎神仙草—大麻

As COVID-19 cases continue to rise, researchers have started to look for solutions in an unlikely place – the cannabis plant.

隨著COVID-19的疫情持續,各地的科學家們開始從尋找不同的解決方案,甚至認為大麻可以對付COVID-19。

 

Is conventional medication still the best choice? Can cannabis cure COVID-19? We should first understand how plants, our body, and the virus works.

 

傳統主流醫學和藥物仍是最好的選擇嗎?大麻能否醫治肺炎?從世界各地的研究分析,了解草本、身體和病毒的運作吧!

 

Dr. Siddappa Byrareddy from the University of Nebraska and the Dr. Mahesh Mohan from the Texas Biomedical Research Institute are recommending more research into how cannabis-derived CBD might help treat dangerous lung inflammation from the novel coronavirus. They explain that recent reports have suggested that acute infection is associated with a cytokine superstorm, which contributes to the symptoms of fever, cough, muscle pain. These extreme instances of inflammation can lead to severe pneumonia which clog up the lungs, make breathing difficult or impossible. 

 

Israeli researchers from The Medical Cannabis Research and Innovation Center at Haifa’s Rambam Health Care Campus are leading research that suggests the effects of medical cannabis could be used as a method for treating some symptoms of seriously ill COVID-19 patients.

 

Current research indicates that when the body’s immune system recognizes a new and threatening invader, a large number of white blood cells are activated and release inflammatory “communication molecules” called cytokines, which activate even more white blood cells and regulate the inflammation process. This storm of cytokines which can result in the out-of-control inflammatory response which worsens the illness and can even lead to death.

 

美國內布拉斯加州大學藥理學與實驗神經科學系副教授 Siddappa Byrareddy 及德州生物醫學研究中心教授 Mahesh Mohan 指,病例報告顯示,COVID-19 的急性感染與細胞因子風暴 (cytokine storm) 相關,即是身體出現過度免疫反應,會導致發燒、咳嗽及肌肉痛等症狀,嚴重者甚至會導致嚴重肺炎,繼而阻塞肺部,令呼吸困難甚至無法呼吸。

 

以色列海法倫本衛生保健園區「醫用大麻研究與創新中心」的研究團隊表明,當人體的免疫系統識別出新的威脅性入侵者時,大量白血球會被激活並釋放出稱為細胞因子的促炎性「通訊分子」,從而激活更多的白血球並調節炎症過程。 如果這種細胞因子失控,可能會導致身體出現過度免疫反應,即是細胞因子風暴,並使疾病惡化,甚至導致死亡。

 

Cannabinoids - naturally occurring compounds that can be generated from both Cannabis and Human

大麻和人體內都會產生的神奇物質—大麻素

 

Active components in cannabis activate an internal system in the body called the Endocannabinoid System. Since the body naturally produces and utilizes substances similar in structure to the active components of cannabis, it may also respond broadly to the cannabis plant itself.

大麻中的活性成分能激活體內的生物系統,稱為內源性大麻素系統,由於人體會自然產生和利用與大麻的活性成分結構相似的物質,因此它會對大麻植物的成分產生廣泛的反應。

 

The first nation that applies Cannabinoid therapy for COVID-19

首個使用大麻治療COVID-19的國家—以色列

 

 

Dr. Louria-Hayon suggests the effects of medical cannabis could be used as a method for treating some symptoms of seriously ill COVID-19 patients, the focus currently is just how much cannabis influences the inflammation process.

 

As the novel coronavirus continues to spread, clinical trials at Rambam hospital for the use of medical marijuana in treating and preventing the rapid, life-threatening inflammation in patients with COVID-19 have already begun. For the first time in Israel, a laboratory experiment has been undertaken to explore the effect of various types of cannabinoids on the white blood cells of COVID-19 patients.

 

“Based on our experimental data, we hypothesize that cannabis may affect the cytokine storm which occurs during COVID-19 disease. Our goal is to apply cannabis treatment to downregulate the inflammation storm before the patients develop severe lung inflammation,” Dr. Louria-Hayon said. The center aims to treat the inflammatory “storm” as it develops and before the patient’s condition deteriorates and a ventilator is needed. 

 

以色列的大麻研究與創新中心科學總監Igal Louria-Hayon博士稱,醫用大麻的作用可以用作治療嚴重COVID-19患者的某些症狀,目前的焦點是多少大麻會影響炎症過程。

 

在倫本醫院進行的臨床試驗中,使用基於大麻素活性機制和科學理解的「大麻療法」來治療和預防COVID-19患者的急性嚴重炎症。 這是以色列首次進行臨床實驗,探索各種類型的大麻素對COVID-19患者體內白血球的影響。

 

醫院稱初步研究已經確認了很多理論,研究人員旨在通過循證試驗來證明這些理論,而實驗的目標,是在患者出現嚴重肺部炎症並惡化至需要使用呼吸機之前,應用大麻療法來緩和細胞因子風暴,解決炎症反應,並通過在炎症風暴了解大麻素的活性機制,來治療對傳統藥物無效的COVID-19患者。

 

Rambam Health Care Campus Haifa
海法倫本保健園區

  

Can CBD prevent virus infection? 

CBD 還可以預防病毒入侵?

 

Medical researchers from the University Of University of Lethbridge in Canada say the plant-based CBD may provide resistance to SARS-CoV-2.

 

The Canadian researchers say that by modulating ACE2 levels in those "gateways" to the human host, it may be possible to lower the susceptibility, or vulnerability, to the SARS-COV-2 coronavirus. Hence it could basically reduce the risk of infection. The research claims that some strains of cannabis reduce the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus' ability to enter the lungs, where it takes hold, reproduces and spreads.

位於加拿大艾伯塔省的萊斯布里奇大學醫學研究人員說,透過調節體內的 ACE-2(冠狀病毒進入身體的通道 )可以從根本上減少冠狀病毒的感染風險。

 

研究人員指出,大麻素——大麻二酚(CBD)可以調節人體內的的 ACE-2,或能阻擋COVID-19的感染,進而減緩病毒的傳播速度。某些品種的大麻可以有效阻止冠狀病毒進入人體,降低冠狀病毒入侵、感染、繁殖和傳播的能力。

 

Why do researchers believe CBD can help with COVID-19, specifically? 

現時的藥物不足夠嗎?為什麼要使用大麻素?

 

 

While negative side effects are minimal with CBD, researchers point out that CBD may have a side benefit for patients with the disease – reduced anxiety. CBD has shown serious promise for the management of anxiety, and may help reduce these challenging levels of stress. 

 

In a recent study, Tocilizumab was able to clear out patients’ lungs, and resulted in recovery for 90% of the patients treated. Unfortunately, it also produced serious negative side effects like inflammation of the pancreas and hypertriglyceridemia (a risk factor for coronary artery disease). This has led researchers to continue the search for anti-inflammatory strategies – preferably ones that aren’t as harsh on these already critically ill patients. 

 

Previous research has shown that CBD can reduce a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, the one reduced by other drugs being studied for COVID-19. CBD was also shown to reduce interleukin (IL)-2, IL-1α and β, interferon gamma, inducible protein-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and tumor necrosis factor-α – all of which are associated with the pathology of severe cases of COVID-19. In addition to reducing these pro-inflammatory cytokines, CBD has also been shown to increase the production of interferons, a type of signaling protein that activates immune cells and prevents viruses from replicating. 

 

In an animal study on asthma, CBD was able to reduce production of proinflammatory cytokine production, actually reducing airway inflammation. In the same study CBD also reduced pulmonary fibrosis – a condition where lung tissue becomes damaged and scarred, thickening lung tissue and making breathing more difficult. This is important, because COVID-19 can also leave patients with serious pulmonary fibrosis


美國的研究人員認為,根據該病毒病理及過往的研究數據,均顯示大麻二酚可用於治療 COVID-19 ,同時指出大麻二酚本身也有抗焦慮作用,可減少病人患病的心理壓力。

 

現時不少研究均顯示,病毒觸發的過度免疫反應有機會是致病甚至是致死的原兇,因此醫學界嘗試以抑制此類細胞的藥物作治療,例如安挺樂 (Tocilizumab),然而該藥同時會引起胰臟發炎及高甘油三酯血症 (hypertriglyceridemia) 等嚴重副作用。

 

在目前治療COVID-19的藥物主要藥理運作是針對減少細胞激素IL-6(一種會促進炎症的細胞因子)。而大麻二酚也似乎可抑制這類細胞因子,包括與 COVID-19 相關的細胞激素 IL-6 、IL-2 、IL-1α 、IL-1β、干擾素-γ 等多種細胞因子。除了減少這些促炎細胞因子外,CBD還可以增加干擾素的產生,而干擾素是一種激活免疫細胞並阻止病毒複製的信號蛋白。

 

另外在一項關於哮喘的動物研究中,發現CBD 可減少可引致發炎的細胞因子,減少呼吸系統的炎症,同時減少在 COVID-19 患者身上常見的肺纖維化 (pulmonary fibrosis) 風險,肺纖維化是肺組織受損和疤痕形成的狀況,使肺組織增厚並使呼吸更加困難。

 

Is CBD the only phytocannabinoid that can treat COVID-19 symptoms?

大麻植物裏,只有CBD可以對付COVID-19?

 

CBD isn’t the only cannabinoid that shows promise as an anti-inflammatory medicine, other cannabis compounds  like THC and terpenes (aroma and flavour compound coming from plants) also play an important role in bringing down inflammation.

 

Inflammation is also not a simple process with approximately 20 different cells participating in inflammation progression and different pathogens may induce different components of the inflammation. Researchers have focused on the strains of the cannabis sativa plant that are high in CBD, but not all strains that showed anti-inflammatory properties can treat COVID-19.

 

While this doesn’t suggest cannabis should be considered a cure or treatment of COVID-19 on it’s own, it does suggest that it may have potential to help bring down inflammation and reduce anxiety in those suffering from the disease. But until more studies are done, this is just a well-supported theory. Direct experimentation is needed to bring us real answers.

 

在大麻植物中,某些大麻素以及其他植物成份如萜烯,都具有特殊的抗炎能力,所以CBD 並不是唯一可以作為抗炎的大麻素。

 

而炎症的發展過程相當複雜,大約有20種不同的細胞參與,不同的病原體可能會誘發不同的炎症反應。因此,並不是每個顯示出抗炎特性的大麻品種都可以治療COVID-19疾病。

 

迄今為止,尚無研究能百分之百確定表明大麻或其化合物能完全根治COVID-19,但根據過往研究,確實表明它們具有極大潛力消除炎症、預防種各種疾病、抵擋細菌和病毒,以至緩解心理壓力及情緒問題。

 

 

Reference:

參考資料:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7187842/

https://www.forbes.com/sites/emilyearlenbaugh/2020/07/06/cannabis-may-reduce-deadly-covid-19-lung-inflammation-researchers-explain-why/amp/

https://nocamels.com/2020/06/israel-researchers-rambam-campus-cannabis-covid19/ 

 

Cover Photo from : IG @ obeliskfarm